Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username.

Previous chapter. Yanghua Wang Search for more papers by this author.

Zhijing Wang Search for more papers by this author. Abstract In marine seismic exploration, exist of receiver ghost influences the frequency band and imaging result seriously. Chapter August Pages: ISSN online : Close Figure Viewer. Previous Figure Next Figure. The typical collapse modes of frames are shown in Fig. With seismic intensity increasing, more plastic hinges appear on columns gradually.

Collapses all start from the compressive failure at the feet of middle columns of bottom story indicated by ellipses in Fig. By comparing Fig. The frame with 8m span only has plastic hinges at the feet of bottom columns and there are almost no column hinges in above stories, which results in much smaller energy dissipation capacity compared with the frames with 4m or 6m span. Therefore, the frame with 8m span has the worst seismic collapse resistance. Figure 1.

Deformation and plastic hinges of typical frames during collapse. The collapse fragility curves of different frames are shown in Fig. All 24 frames are divided into 8 groups to compare the influence of span to the fragility curves, as shown in Fig. It can be found that the collapse possibility becomes larger as span increases.

The reason is that the increase of span leads to the increase of total gravity loads, which results in larger axial compression ratios of columns shown in Table 1. For these columns under small eccentric compression, the bending strength and ductility decrease with larger axial compression ratio, which makes the column feet crush before the ductility of whole structure could be fully developed. In Wenchuan Earthquake, many classroom buildings with large span collapsed while office buildings and residences with small span shown less damage.

It may be due to this reason [1][3][4].

## Erosion influences the seismicity of active thrust faults | Nature Communications

The frames are divided into 6 groups to compare the influence of story number, as shown in Fig. Generally higher frames with larger axial compression ratios are more vulnerable to collapse. The frames are divided into 4 groups to compare the influence of story height, as shown in Fig. Most frames with 3. It is because storey height has two aspects of effect on the seismic collapse resistance of frames:. Therefore, as storey height increases, ultimate deformation of column increases so that the energy dissipation capacity of structure increases. Then the seismic collapse resistance of whole structure increases.

Then the seismic collapse resistance of structure will be weakened. For frames with small span and storey number, the positive effect is more obvious, while for frames with large span and storey number, the negative effect reduce the positive effect, which makes the influence of storey height less obvious. Figure 4. Comparison for collapse fragility curves of frames with different storey heights. Collapse possibilities of frames under severe earthquake maximal considered earthquake in the Chinese design code and mega-earthquake are shown in Table 2. And the results of frames with 8m span are especially worse.

Table 2. Collapse possibilities of frames under severe earthquake and mega-earthquake. Storey height: 2.

- Mille volte mi ha portato sulle spalle (I narratori) (Italian Edition).
- Grenzüberschreitungen in Gloria Anzaldúas Borderlands / La Frontera - The New Mestiza (German Edition)?
- Announcing Article: “Maturity of nearby faults influences seismic hazard from hydraulic fracturing”?
- Handbook of Computational Molecular Biology (Chapman & Hall/CRC Computer and Information Science Series).
- All About Eve Trilogy: Six Steps to a Girl; Threes a Crowd and The One and Only.
- Erosion influences the seismicity of active thrust faults.

Storey height: 3. Span: 4m.

## Atmospheric and Seismic Influences.

Span: 6m. Span: 8m. Server earthquake. Storey number Because of the economic limitation in China and similar developing countries, the structures may experience earthquakes that are much larger than the maximal considered earthquake in currently Chinese design code. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the seismic collapse resistance of structures under earthquake that is larger than the maximal considered earthquake. And from the collapse fragilities curves, the collapse possibilities of frames under mega-earthquake are shown in Table 2.

Therefore, it is necessary to do some further research on improving seismic collapse resistance of Chinese structures under mega-earthquake. CMR of each structure could be obtained from Eq 1 and the collapse fragility curves in Fig. Late Holocene paleoseismicity of the southern part of the Chelungpu fault in central Taiwan: Evidence from the Chushan excavation site. Parker, R. Mass wasting triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake is greater than orogenic growth.

Hovius, N. Prolonged seismically induced erosion and the mass balance of a large earthquake.

### Original Research ARTICLE

Howarth, J. Lake sediments record cycles of sediment flux driven by large earthquakes on the Alpine fault, New Zealand. Geology 40 , — Li, G. Seismic mountain building: landslides associated with the Wenchuan earthquake in the context of a generalized model for earthquake volume balance.

Meunier, P. Topographic site effects and the location of earthquake induced landslides. Lague, D. Discharge, discharge variability, and the bedrock channel profile. Meade, B. Algorithms for the calculation of exact displacements, strains, and stresses for triangular dislocation elements in a uniform elastic half space. Vergne, J. Loevenbruck, A. Seismic cycle in Taiwan derived from GPS measurements. IIA , 57—64 Dominguez, S. Hsu, Y. A two-dimensional dislocation model for interseismic deformation of the Taiwan mountain belt.

Pankow, K. Massive landslide at Utah copper mine generates wealth of geophysical data. Today 24 , 4—9 Why does the co-seismic slip of the Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake increase progressively northwestward on the plane of rupture? Tectonophysics , 67—80 Boussinesq, J. CR Math. Paris 86 , — Westergaard, H. Theory of elasticity and plasticity Harvard University Press Download references. This is IPGP contribution number All authors contributed equally to the design of the study and to the writing of the paper.

Correspondence to Philippe Steer. To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. Environmental Earth Sciences Progress in Earth and Planetary Science Nature Geoscience By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Seismology Tectonics. Abstract Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issues in Earth sciences. Figure 1: Faults stress loading rates induced by erosion in the foothills of Taiwan. Full size image. Figure 2: Mechanism of Coulomb stress loading of a thrust fault by surface erosion. Figure 3: Erosional versus tectonic driven Coulomb stress loading of faults during the seismic cycle.

Figure 4: Sensitivity of model results to the model parameters. Methods Seismic cycle model The deformation model computes the velocity field v , strain and stress rate tensors induced by surface erosion in a 3D elastic half-space based on the Boussinesq approximation Elastic Boussinesq model We here consider the displacements, stress and strain components generated by a point load F at the surface of a 3D semi-infinite elastic solid of coordinates x , y and z , with z being positive downward.

## Influence of cable depth on seismic data quality and deghosting effect

The six stress components are 37 , 38 : Because the model is linear and elastic, the total displacement, stress and strain components for any distribution of surface load are then computed by summation of the displacement, stress and strain components obtained for each individual point load. Additional Information How to cite this article : Steer, P. References 1. Article Google Scholar 2. Article Google Scholar 3.

Article Google Scholar 5. Article Google Scholar 8. Google Scholar 9. Article Google Scholar Google Scholar Google Scholar Download references. Bruce H. Supplementary information PDF files 1.